Hexun.com News The 2013 China Low Carbon Model Summit Forum and Awards Ceremony was held in Beijing on the 21st. Hexun.com broadcasts the whole process. At the event, Wang Jianguo, director of the Low Carbon Development Research Center of Peking University, delivered a keynote speech. He said that the cultural revolution of the first 30 years will be called three GDPs, bloody GDP, poisoned GDP, and bean curd GDP in the last 30 years... They are leaving Beijing in droves.
The following is a textual record:
Moderator: I am very grateful to Mr. Sun Wei for his wonderful speech. Climate change is not only a topic but a real and realistic issue. There should be a lot of legislative space in this, and climate change legislation needs all sectors of society. Every need is needed. One person's support. Next, Mr. Wang Jianguo, Director of the Low Carbon Development Research Center of Peking University, will give you keynote speeches, business models and a low carbon economy.
Wang Jianguo: The topic is China's Low Carbon Model Summit Forum and Awards Ceremony. It shows that there are some typical enterprises in this category. I will use these exemplary types of enterprises as a case to talk about the relationship between business models and low-carbon economy.
The first case is Microsoft. I can think of it as the mode of the printing machine. The printing machine is the machine for printing money. If there is an industry cost is to buy a printing machine, the value created is the printing of the banknote, the cost. It is the cost of this printing machine. As for how many tickets are printed, strictly speaking, there is no additional cost. Only the cost of the first payment machine has no additional resource cost. Therefore, the additional output is absolutely low carbon and there is no cost. why is it like this? For example, Microsoft produces software, such as investing $500 million to develop software. This software sells for $1,000. The output is zero or 100 million, and the cost is 500 million. Because we bought this software. When you can ignore the raw materials of the floppy disk, only a few cents, mainly to buy the software inside, this software can endlessly increase production without any variable cost. Economics calls the marginal cost zero, and is always zero. The only thing is how much the market needs, how much the market needs to produce, and there is no additional cost. I have an article in the People’s Daily called marginal non-scarcity. The economy is that the additional economic cost is zero, the cost of the incremental economy is zero, and the resource consumption is zero. This is an absolute low-carbon economy. Such a company can be seen as a low-carbon model. You will say that this is a common phenomenon. Strictly speaking, it is almost always included in any product. It is only a matter of proportion. Let’s think about it. If a country’s GDP is in the printing machine model I just talked about. Or, the greater the proportion of marginal non-scarce economy, the lower the economy of this country's economy, let's see if other companies are the same, whether it is only Microsoft, such as McDonald's, KFC this type of franchise store The income mainly comes from two aspects, not only McDonald's, McDonald's and real estate problems, other franchise stores do not contain real estate, we can see the main benefits come from, the value of creation comes from two aspects, the first It is selling cakes, such as McDonald's, KFC. The second is the franchise of joining. The reason why it can sell money is a very effective and standardized production process and management process. Once it is created, it can be copied endlessly without any additional costs. If McDonald's or KFC wants to join, it will cost 500,000 US dollars to buy a franchise right, and give you two codes, one is the production process, and the other is the management process. The two books are worth 500,000 yuan. We can ignore the printing cost. You can see if the printing cost of the two books is 50 yuan or 10 yuan. Joining a store or two stores, the additional cost of tens of thousands of stores is zero, assuming 500,000 is added. The store, which is $25 billion, is without any additional resources, not only without any variable costs, it is an absolute low-carbon economy. The economic value of McDonald's and KFC is composed of two parts. Some are resource-intensive, which can be called marginal scarce products, and one is the value without any additional resources. The franchise fee can be called marginal non-scarce products. Absolutely low carbon. The industry is classified into the first, second and third industries. If the low-carbon view of this classification is meaningless, the so-called primary industry, if the margins contained in the value are not scarce, the value created is very low even if the primary industry is low-carbon. If it is the tertiary industry, if the value created is all resource-consuming, it is marginal scarcity, mainly due to variable costs, and variable cost is also high carbon. For example, the Mercedes-Benz produced in Germany and the red-flagged car we produce are the same raw materials. For example, they all spend one ton of steel. The German Mercedes-Benz is 10 times the price of the red flag, and the other 90% of the value can be said to be Marginal non-scarce products, because there is no resource consumption, as long as the first process of the process, the design of a one-time payment, just like the printing machine, assuming this design or process aspects, we can see is Intangible assets, this part of the investment assumption accounts for 90% of the entire investment, the raw material consumption is only 10%, the red flag car assumes that the cost of raw materials is the same as him, actually put him more, the red flag car is heavier than it. His price is 10 times that of us. The nine-tenth part can be regarded as a marginal non-scarce product. Actually, there is no additional cost. After a one-time investment, no matter how many Mercedes-Benz cars are produced, only a small amount of raw materials will be consumed. In the red flag car, and not more than the red flag car, but the value is ten times our value, the value of nine tenths can be regarded as absolutely low carbon, but this is the primary industry. You said that the primary industry must be high-carbon, and the service industry must be low-carbon? We are wasting, corrupt, eating tens of thousands of dollars, and the rest are dumped. Is this low-carbon or high-carbon? The value of Mercedes-Benz is not worth the variable cost. It is the first design, the first process, and will not be added after the operation. The red flag cars produced by us each have a value nine times higher, such as drinking water cups and bottles. There are also two kinds of products inside. The first is marginal non-scarce, the second is scarce, such as cups, bottles of water, plastics for bottles such as 1 cent, bottles of dime, nine out of ten worth of a dime to buy Nine-tenths of the margins are not scarce. We buy the model of the bottle. The plastic can't hold the water, the bottle can hold the water. We buy the plastic into the shape of the bottle. It is a mold to make it without additional cost. Nine out of ten are absolute sites, marginal is not scarce, and there is no cost. From small bottles to heavy industries, our industry should be reclassified. It is not based on the average low carbon standard of the first, second and third industries. It should be differentiated by the marginal scarcity marginal non-scarce economy. If so, we can treat a company, or a country. In the end, it is not a model, it is low carbon or not low carbon, and there is no added new value. If there is no additional cost, there is no variable cost to increase output, as long as the enterprise has no variable cost to increase the output part. Value is called the absolute low-carbon economy. If the proportion of the company that does not have the variable cost increase is greater, the lower the carbon of the enterprise, the greater the component of the GDP that has no variable cost in a country’s GDP, the more your economy Low carbon, the better, so we can propose a standard, we can divide the whole industry into two categories, one is called marginal scarcity economy, and the other is called marginal non-scarce economy. This is the first case I talked about. Microsoft is popularized as a case, and then promoted to the theory, and then the enterprise is promoted to the economic level of the country.
We can talk about another case. Although it is not like the mode of the printing machine, it seems to be very advanced. The value added by the printing machine can be printed on the line, and the printing will be done, but the limit is the demand. Microsoft does not spend A penny, the additional cost is zero, to buy a thousand, this is the demand for consumption, the number of consumers needing floppy disks is limited, one thousand, the society needs 10 million, if you do not need money, it may be necessary One billion, so the output is not going up, this model is low carbon but not the best.
Let me talk about a case, not only absolute low carbon, but also no money, sales are very large, we know that if the additional cost is zero, or the incremental cost is zero, there is no variable cost of the product, the higher the social benefits, the society The greater the welfare, the more you can use it without cost. For example, a bridge fee can be over one million people. If you charge only one thousand people, the fee will not be enough. If you pass one million, you will waste more than 90. The production capacity of 10,000, the additional output cost is zero, the marginal non-scarce economy does not need money at the same time, it is free to the society, and it is provided to the market, and at the same time, it can make money. This is another business model. This business model is like Google, like Baidu, especially the typical 360 now, is the same. For the first time, it is a printing machine. It is 360, or Google. This platform is set up. If it is used by one person, no one uses it. It is still 100 million people, and the cost of using 1 billion people is the same. If there is no additional cost, if you want money, the amount of use will be small. If you don't need money, the amount of use will be very large. We will collect a thousand dollars for one search, because it will save a lot of time, so there are only 10 million in the world. If you don’t pay, there are 2 billion people going up, 2 billion people searching and 10 million people searching. Social welfare has increased, but it has earned more. If you charge one thousand dollars, 10 million people, only 10 billion yuan of income, if you don’t want to spend 2 billion free searches, sell 2 billion customer resources to the first The three parties can receive 100 billion yuan, and they will have an income of 90 billion yuan. Therefore, if you don’t want money, you will earn more than you want money. This business model has an absolutely low-carbon component. Like Microsoft, it is also printed. The mode of the banknote, the additional output is also no variable cost, so it is absolutely low carbon. But because you don't want money, you can maximize the benefits to society. This model works better and is better than the previous model. This model is also a very low-carbon economy. What are the two cases in which we call the marginal non-scarce economy an absolute low-carbon economy? Explain that to engage in a low-carbon economy, the business model and the country's economic development model are very important. If we do this business model well and do a good job in the country's economic development model, it will naturally be low-carbon. We can also talk about one. How do companies go to energy conservation and emission reduction, we must stand at a higher level to understand this problem. Can our country really transform, can it be transformed, through the transformation of the country's economic development model, through the transformation of the business model of the enterprise, and finally give an example, my speech is over, this thing has no problem for one day, today can not Tell the theory.
Looking for one of the most traditional examples, starting a business, everyone knows that our country needs special innovation and entrepreneurship. I will talk about entrepreneurial examples. For example, there are five manufacturers with eight customers, each of which sells to these eight customers, eight Every customer wants to buy five manufacturers, so the five-eighth is forty transactions. Assuming that each transaction is a cost of one hundred dollars, including logistics costs, the transaction cost is four thousand. Now suppose that a venture is born. A middleman, a bar between the manufacturer and the consumer, set up a wholesaler. The wholesaler went to the manufacturer and said, you all sell it to me. I paid a higher price than the original. They said to the customer. You don't want to buy it at the factory price. If you buy it from me, it can be cheaper than the original. The customer certainly agrees. Now you can buy eight things as long as you make a transaction. Every family is cheap, and the transaction cost is saved. The manufacturer is willing to sell it to him. It turns out that one manufacturer has to sell it eight times. Now, as long as it sells one-time to the middleman, the price can be sold higher than the original, so And manufacturers are willing to do this thing. We are now looking at middlemen to make money. Five manufacturers sell to intermediaries five times, eight customers sell five times, only thirteen times. If thirteen transactions are still one hundred yuan each time, there are only one thousand three hundred. Block money, saving 2,700 transaction costs, this new price is not consumed by any resources, is GDP, let alone carbon emissions, does not consume any resources, low-carbon resources do not consume high carbon, but The new value of 2,700 yuan has been added. The customers and manufacturers each have 900 pieces and they have 900 pieces. The middle wholesaler is called entrepreneurship. We can say that new startups can save transaction costs and create new value. And it doesn't cost resources. This shows the business model. If we can carry out the promotion and transformation of the business model, we can re-divide the industry with the concept I have just mentioned, especially the concept of marginal non-scarce economy, using my standard to produce more than one or two. Much better, the primary industry may be low-carbon, and the tertiary industry may be high-carbon.
I have used three cases to illustrate the business model, the low carbon economy and the creation of new values, and the increase in GDP has an absolutely very strong relationship, which is worthy of our study. In the past 30 years, we have criticized the first 30 years, and 30 years after criticism, all have achievements, but there are problems, the first 30 years of cultural revolution, the last 30 years are called three GDP, bloody GDP, poisoned GDP, Tofu residue GDP. The two fathers opened a million good cars and slammed them to others. Others did not eat enough. They ate pigs and dogs, and Zhumen wine smelled bad. The road has frozen bones, which is our economic manifestation today.
The bean curd economy, when it was finally economically done, only 40% left. Just like the bridge of 2.3 billion in Jilin, it was given to a chef. The chef finally had no money. How much is left in his hand? Also repairing this bridge, the result is the GDP of tofu residue, the budget of 10 billion is only used for construction, and the construction is the tofu residue. The last paragraph is to make money. The first is to deduct the wages of migrant workers, that is, the blood color GDP, and the second is Both pollution and high carbon, you want to do everything to save costs, it will be polluted, high carbon GDP, but also the tofu residue GDP, there is poison, the current carbon dioxide itself is poison, carbon dioxide poison than we are now The poison is light, we still have more terrible poison than high carbon, food poison, drug poisoning. In the last 30 years of China, these three GDPs have harmed us, environmental pollution, environmental damage has reached the Chinese nation can not survive Degree. Beijing has 700,000 annual financial expenditures. I have students asking me how to immigrate. Two couples have to pay 500,000 yuan after tax to survive. I have to immigrate to Australia. I have been in Australia for eight years. It feels good. My nephew is working in Beijing. His classmates are left alone. They can't survive. Our young people are leaving Beijing in droves. The first is the cost issue, and more importantly, the air. And the living environment, I am a normal income level, I came back with 500,000 yuan, there was no tax at that time, when I came back, in 2000, 500,000 can buy a good house, now my salary is about At that time, I evaded taxes of more than 200,000 yuan, nearly 300,000 taxes a year, and avoided some taxes. Our unit is engaged in research. I can’t buy a toilet now. If I look at the price, my The standard of living has been reduced by 10 times. I bought a house of 500,000. I have to use a price of 10 times or more to buy the house I bought in the previous year. In 2001, the house I bought in 1 million is now equivalent to 9 million. My work at that time. To tens of thousands of dollars a year now but at that time, and our standard of living is not increasing, but in the fall.